EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND CAPITALS AND PRESIDENTS 2019- ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW

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Hey readers, today we shall review, and we will be discussing the 51 recognized countries on the European continent. Europe is the 6th smallest continent. Its current population is put at 742,994,140. This article will provide you with the List of European Countries And Capitals as well as other relevant information. Happy reading.

EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND CAPITALS AND PRESIDENTS 2019- ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW

List of European Countries and Capitals

  • Albania
  • Capital is Tirana
  • Andorra
  • Capital is Andorra la Vella
  • Armenia
  • Capital is Yerevan
  • Austria
  • Capital is Vienna
  • Azerbaijan
  • Capital is Baku
  • Belarus
  • Capital is Minsk
  • Belgium
  • Capital is Brussels
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Capital is Sarajevo
  • Bulgaria
  • Capital is Sofia
  • Croatia
  • Capital is Zagreb
  • Cyprus
  • Capital is Nicosia
  • Czechia
  • Capital is Prague
  • Denmark
  • Capital is Copenhagen
  • Estonia
  • Capital is Tallinn
  • Finland
  • Capital is Helsinki
  • France
  • Capital is Paris
  • Georgia
  • Capital is Tbilisi
  • Germany
  • Capital is Berlin
  • Greece
  • Capital is Athens
  • Hungary
  • Capital is Budapest
  • Iceland
  • Capital is Reykjavik
  • Ireland
  • Capital is Dublin
  • Italy
  • Capital is Rome
  • Kazakhstan
  • Capital is Nur-Sultan
  • Kosovo
  • Capital is Pristina
  • Latvia
  • Capital is Riga
  • Liechtenstein
  • Capital is Vaduz
  • Lithuania
  • Capital is Vilnius
  • Luxembourg
  • Capital is Luxembourg (city)
  • Malta
  • Capital is Valletta
  • Moldova
  • Capital is Chisinau
  • Monaco
  • Capital is Monte Carlo
  • Montenegro
  • Capital is Podgorica
  • Netherlands
  • Capital is Amsterdam
  • North Macedonia (formerly Macedonia)
  • Capital is Skopje
  • Norway
  • Capital is Oslo
  • Poland
  • Capital is Warsaw
  • Portugal
  • Capital is Lisbon
  • Romania
  • Capital is Bucharest
  • Russia
  • Capital in Moscow
  • San Marino
  • Capital is San Marino
  • Serbia
  • Capital is Belgrade
  • Slovakia
  • Capital is Bratislava
  • Slovenia
  • Capital is Ljubljana
  • Spain
  • Capital is Madrid
  • Sweden
  • Capital is Stockholm
  • Switzerland
  • Capital is Bern
  • Turkey
  • Capital is Ankara
  • Ukraine
  • Capital is Kyiv (also known as Kiev)
  • United Kingdom
  • Capital in London
  • Vatican City (Holy See)

European Countries And Presidents

  • Albania
  • President – Ilir Meta, President of Albania (2017–present)
  • Andorra
  • Prime Minister – Antoni Martí, Head of Government of Andorra (2015–present)
  • Armenia
  • President – Armen Sarkissian, President of Armenia (2018–present)
  • Austria
  • President – Alexander Van der Bellen, Federal President of Austria (2017–present)
  • Chancellor – Sebastian Kurz, Federal Chancellor of Austria (2017–present)
  • Azerbaijan
  • President – Ilham Aliyev, President of Azerbaijan (2003–present)
  • Belarus
  • President – Alexander Lukashenko, President of Belarus (1994–present)
  • Belgium
  • Prime Minister – Charles Michel, Prime Minister of Belgium (2014–present)
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Head of State – Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bulgaria
  • President – Rumen Radev, President of Bulgaria (2017–present)
  • Croatia
  • President – Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović, President of Croatia (2015–present)
  • Cyprus
  • President – Nicos Anastasiades, President of Cyprus (2013–present)
  • Czech Republic
  • President – Miloš Zeman, President of the Czech Republic (2013–present)
  • Denmark
  • Prime Minister – Lars Løkke Rasmussen, Prime Minister of Denmark (2015–present)
  • Estonia
  • President – Kersti Kaljulaid, President of Estonia (2016–present)
  • Finland
  • President – Sauli Niinistö, President of Finland (2012–present)
  • France
  • President – Emmanuel Macron, President of France (2017–present)
  • Georgia
  • President – Salome Zurabishvili, President of Georgia (2018–present)
  • Germany
  • Chancellor – Angela Merkel, Federal Chancellor of Germany (2005–present)
  • Greece
  • President – Prokopis Pavlopoulos, President of Greece (2015–present)
  • Hungary
  • President – János Áder, President of Hungary (2012–present)
  • Iceland
  • President – Guðni Th. Jóhannesson, President of Iceland (2016–present)
  • Ireland
  • President – Michael D. Higgins, President of Ireland (2011–present)
  • Italy
  • President – Sergio Mattarella, President of Italy (2015–present)
  • Kosovo (partially recognized, secessionist state; under nominal international administration)
  • President – Hashim Thaçi, President of Kosovo (2016–present)
  • Latvia
  • President – Raimonds Vējonis, President of Latvia (2015–present)
  • Liechtenstein
  • Prime Minister – Adrian Hasler, Head of Government of Liechtenstein (2013–present)
  • Lithuania
  • President – Dalia Grybauskaitė, President of Lithuania (2009–present)
  • Luxembourg
  • Prime Minister – Xavier Bettel, Prime Minister of Luxembourg (2013–present)
  • Northern Macedonia
  • President – Gjorge Ivanov, President of Macedonia (2009–present)
  • Prime Minister – Zoran Zaev, President of the Government of Macedonia (2017–present)
  • Malta
  • George Vella, President of Malta (2019–present)
  • Moldova
  • President – Igor Dodon, President of Moldova (2016–present)
  • Monaco
  • Monarch – Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (2005–present)
  • Prime Minister – Serge Telle, Minister of State of Monaco (2016–present)
  • Montenegro
  • President – Milo Đukanović, President of Montenegro (2018–present)
  • Netherlands
  • Prime Minister – Mark Rutte, Prime Minister of the Netherlands (2010–present)
  • Norway
  • Prime Minister – Erna Solberg, Prime Minister of Norway (2013–present)
  • Poland
  • President – Andrzej Duda, President of Poland (2015–present)
  • Portugal
  • President – Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, President of Portugal (2016–present)
  • Romania
  • President – Klaus Iohannis, President of Romania (2014–present)
  • Russia
  • President – Vladimir Putin, President of Russia (2012–present) San Marino
  • Nicola Selva and Michele Muratori, Captains Regent of San Marino (2019–present)
  • Serbia
  • President – Aleksandar Vučić, President of Serbia (2017–present)
  • Slovakia
  • Zuzana Čaputová, President of Slovakia (2019- present)
  • Slovenia
  • President – Borut Pahor, President of Slovenia (2012–present)
  • Spain
  • Prime Minister – Pedro Sánchez, President of the Government of Spain (2018–present)
  • Sweden
  • Prime Minister – Stefan Löfven, Prime Minister of Sweden (2014–present)
  • Switzerland
  • Ueli Maurer (President of Switzerland, 2019–present)
  • Ukraine
  • President – Petro Poroshenko, President of Ukraine (2014–present)
  • United Kingdom
  • Prime Minister – Theresa May, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (2016–present)
  • Vatican City
  • Monarch – Pope Francis, Sovereign of Vatican City (2013–present)
  • Head of Government – Cardinal Giuseppe Bertello, President of the Governorate of Vatican City (2011–present)

More Information On European Countries And Capitals, Population And Tourist Destinations

  • #1. Albania
  • Capital city: Tirana
  • Area: 28,748 square kilometres (11,100 square miles)
  • Population: 2,937,424

Albania is a country located on Southeastern Europe’s Balkan Peninsula. This small country has Adriatic and Ionian coastlines as well as an interior crossed by the Albanian Alps. The country is home to many castles and archaeological sites. The capital city of Albania, Tirana, is situated on the sprawling Skanderbeg Square which is also the site of the National History Museum where exhibits ranging antiquity to post-communism are displayed. The frescoed Et’hem Bey Mosque is also in Tirana. South of Tirana, there are lively Ottoman towns of Gjirokastër and Berat which are known for their imposing castles, mosques as well as Byzantine churches. Butrint, close to the Greek border, features both Greek and Roman ruins and also Bronze Age artifacts. Along the southern coast of Albania, the Albanian Riviera is famous for its traditional Mediterranean villages, beach resorts as well as a vibrant nightlife.

  • #2. Andorra
  • Capital city: Andorra la Vella
  • Area: 468 square kilometers (181 sq. mi)
  • Population: 77,072

Andorra is a tiny independent country, located between France and Spain in the Pyrenees mountains. The country is known for its ski resorts and also as a tax-haven status that encourages duty-free shopping. The capital city Andorra la Vella has boutiques and also jewelers on Meritxell Avenue in addition to several shopping centers. The old quarter, Barri Antic, is home to the Romanesque Santa Coloma Church, which has a circular bell tower. The main ski region of Andorra, eastern Grandvalira, is made up of interconnected resorts with many runs, snow parks as well as off-piste facilities.

  • #3. Armenia
  • Capital city: Yerevan
  • Area: 29,743 square kilometres (11,484 sq. mi).
  • Population: 2,936,075

Armenia was part of the former Soviet Republic. It is a country in the mountainous Caucasus region between Asia and Europe. The country is among the earliest Christian civilizations and is defined by numerous religious sites including the Greco-Roman Temple of Garni as well as the 4th-century Etchmiadzin Cathedral which serves as the headquarters of the Armenian Church. The Khor Virap Monastery is a pilgrimage site close to Mount Ararat, a dormant volcano lying just across the border in Turkey. Medieval Geghard Monastery, which features churches as well as tombs carved from stone, and the Byzantine Haghpat Monastery, perched above the Debed River, offer far-reaching views. The High-altitude Lake Sevan borders the monastery Sevanavank which dates far back to the 9th century, and the beach resorts are for windsurfing, jet-skiing and also sailing. In the capital city of Armenia, Yerevan, historical attractions such as Matenadaran, a library that is filled with ancient manuscripts, mix with trendy nightclubs as well as street markets. Yerevan also is home to the Armenian Genocide Museum and Memorial, which commemorates a dark period in the history of the country.

  • #4. Austria
  • Capital city: Vienna
  • Area: 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq. mi)
  • Population: 8,762,646

German-speaking Austria is a country in Central Europe. Austria is characterized by mountain villages, rich Imperial history, baroque architecture, as well as rugged Alpine terrain. Vienna, the capital of Austria, is home to the Schönbrunn and Hofburg palaces. The city has also counted Mozart, Strauss, and Freud among its residents. Various notable regions of Austria include the northern Bohemian Forest, Traunsee Lake, and the eastern hillside vineyards.

  • #5. Azerbaijan
  • Capital city: Baku
  • Area: 86,600 sq. km (33,400 sq. miles)
  • Population: 9,991,169

Azerbaijan is another former Soviet republic country. The country is bounded by the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains, which span both Asia and Europe. The capital city, Baku, is famous for its medieval walled Inner City. Within this Inner City lies the Palace of the Shirvanshahs, a royal retreat which dates back to the 15th century, as well as the centuries-old stone Maiden Tower, which dominates the skyline of the city. Baku is also famous for contemporary landmarks such as the Heydar Aliyev Center, a curvaceous structure that was designed by Zaha Hadid and used for cultural events. Outside town, you will find the reconstructed Bibi-Heybat Mosque, a pilgrimage site, and the Azerbaijan Carpet Museum which houses a vast collection of ornate, which are locally made carpets. Gobustan National Park is surrounded by hundreds of mud volcanoes and perforated with caves which feature rock engravings from the Stone and Bronze ages.

  • #6. Belarus
  • Capital city: Minsk
  • Area: 208,000 km2 (80,100 sq. mi.)
  • Population: 9,438,308

This landlocked country is situated in Eastern Europe. The country is famous for its Stalinist architecture, grand fortifications as well as primeval forests. In Minsk, the capital city of Belarus, the monumental KGB Headquarters looms over Independence Square. Also, the Museum of the Great Patriotic War in the same city commemorates the country’s role in WWII. Scattered all over the capital are many churches, including the neo-Romanesque Church of Saints Simon and Helena. Belarus also has castle complexes of Mir and Nesvizh, reconstructed royal retreats which date back to the 15th and 16th centuries that blend Renaissance, baroque as well as other architectural styles. Just at the southwestern Area of the country, the Brest region is famous for its imposing 19th-century Russian fortress, which was built to mark the site of an important WWII battle.

  • #7. Belgium
  • Capital city: Brussels
  • Area: 30,688 square kilometres (11,849 sq. mi)
  • Population: 11,546,979

Situated in Western Europe, Belgium is known for its medieval towns and Renaissance architecture. The country also houses headquarters of both the European Union and NATO. Belgium is divided into distinctive regions, including Dutch-speaking Flanders who occupy the north, French-speaking Wallonia to the south of the country and a German-speaking community to the east. Brussels, the bilingual capital city of Belgium, has ornate guildhalls at Grand-Place as well as elegant art-nouveau buildings. Medieval Ghent has the circa-1180 Gravensteen castle as well as the 14th century St. Bavo’s Cathedral.

  • #8. Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Capital city:
  • Area: 51,197 square kilometers (19,767 square miles)
  • Population: 3,502,208

Bosnia and Herzegovina are located in the Balkan Peninsula of southeastern Europe. The countryside of Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to medieval villages, rivers, and lakes, as well as the steep Dinaric Alps. Sarajevo which doubles as the Capital city of the country has a well preserved old quarter, Baščaršija, which has landmarks such as the 16th century Gazi Husrev-Bey Mosque. Ottoman-era Latin Bridge was where the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand took place, leading to World War I.

  • #9. Bulgaria
  • Capital: Sofia
  • Area: 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq. mi)
  • Population: 6,988,739

Bulgaria is a Balkan nation which boasts of diverse terrain. Its terrain encompasses the Black Sea coastline as well as a mountainous interior and rivers, including the Danube. The country is a cultural melting pot as there are influences of Greek, Slavic, Ottoman, and Persian in the country. Bulgaria has a rich heritage of traditional dance, music, costumes, and also crafts. The capital city, Sofia sits at the foot of domed Vitosha mountain and dates to the 5th century B.C. The National Museum of History which is located in Sofia displays gold artifacts that were excavated from the Valley of the Thracian Rulers, a famous collection of tombs closes to the town of Kazanlak. Old churches located at Ivanovo are cut from solid rock. Archaeological sites in Bulgaria include Nessebar, 3,000-year-old ruins of a Greek colony, on the Black Sea. Varna is well known for beach resorts, while the southwestern city of Bansko is a ski destination.

  • #10. Croatia
  • Capital city: Zagreb
  • Area: 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles)
  • Population: 4,146,167

Located in Eastern Europe, Croatia is a country with a long coastline on the Adriatic Sea. The country has more than a thousand islands and is also crossed by the Dinaric Alps. The country’s capital Zagreb is distinguished by its medieval Gornji Grad (Upper Town) and its several museums. The major coastal city Dubrovnik features massive 16th-century walls which encircle an Old Town with Gothic as well as Renaissance buildings. Croatia’s many beaches and islands are often busy in summer and many offer sites for tent or trailer camping. Croatian cuisine is quite diverse, blending hints of Hungarian, Italian, Turkish as well as Slavic influences.

  • #11. Cyprus
  • Capital city: Nicosia
  • Area: 9,250 sq. km (3,571 sq. mi)
  • Population: 1,196,122

The Republic of Cyprus is located in the southern part of the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean. The island and capital city Nicosia is shared with Turkey to the north. Cyprus is known for beaches and its mountainous interior with wine regions. Coastal Paphos is a city that is famous for its archaeological sites which relate to the cult of Aphrodite, including ruins of palaces, tombs as well as mosaic-tiled villas. Limassol is the site of the medieval Limassol Castle as well as an Old Port. Citizens of Cyprus have long been cultivating wine, since the Bronze Age. It is therefore not surprising that many wineries are based in and around the city of Limassol. The western Akamas Peninsula National Park is a mountainous area that is exploited foot hiking and mountain biking, with beaches that are accessible by off-road vehicles.

  • #12. Czech Republic
  • Capital city: Prague
  • Area: 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq. mi)
  • Population: 10,630,000

Famous for its magnificent castles, native beers and also its long history, the Czech Republic is a Central European country. With the city of Prague as its capital, visitors to the city are treated to a grand 9th century Prague Castle, a preserved medieval old town as well as statue-lined Charles Bridge. In Český Krumlov, a small town located in the South Bohemia region, there is a wealth of Gothic, Renaissance as well as Baroque buildings, many of which now house restaurants and shops. In medieval Kutna Horá, which is a former silver-mining town, Sedlec Ossuary displays over 40,000 human skeletons.

  • #13. Denmark
  • Capital city: Copenhagen
  • Area: 43,094 square kilometres (16,639 sq. mi)
  • Population: 5,770,107

Denmark is a Scandinavian country which comprises the Jutland Peninsula as well as numerous islands. Denmark is linked to nearby Sweden via the Öresund bridge. The capital of Denmark in Copenhagen. The city is home to royal palaces and picturesque Nyhavn harbor, as well as the Tivoli amusement park and the iconic “Little Mermaid” statue. To the North of Copenhagen on Zealand Island is Kronborg Castle, which was portrayed as Elsinore in Shakespeare’s “Hamlet.” The Louisiana Museum of Modern Art located in Humlebæk specializes in both modern and contemporary painting. The city of Roskilde features a Gothic brick cathedral as well as the Vikingeskibshallen museum, which has 11th century Viking ships.

  • #14. Estonia
  • Capital city: Tallinn
  • Area: 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq. mi)
  • Population: 1,304,533

Located in Northern Europe and bordering the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland, Estonia is a country made up of more than 1,500 islands. The country features a diverse terrain which spans rocky beaches, old-growth forest as well as many lakes. Estonia was part of the defunct Soviet Union. The country is dotted with castles, churches and also hilltop fortresses. Tallinn, the capital city, is famous for its preserved Old Town, museums and also the 314m-high Tallinn TV Tower, which features an observation deck. Kadriorg Palace, a summer home which was built by Czar Peter the Great for his wife, Catherine is another famous spot in Tallinn. Close to Tallinn is the vast Lahemaa National Park, which has raised bogs, conifer forests and also country manor houses.

  • #15. Finland
  • Capital city: Helsinki
  • Area: 338,145 km2 (130,558 sq. mi.)
  • Population: 5,560,000

Finland sits in Northern Europe, bordering Sweden, Norway, and Russia. The capital is Helsinki. The city occupies a peninsula as well as surrounding islands in the Baltic Sea. In Helsinki, you will find the 18th-century sea fortress Suomenlinna, the fashionable Design District as well as several museums. The Northern Lights are visible from the country’s Arctic Lapland province, a vast wilderness which has national parks and ski resorts. Some of the popular activities around Helsinki are Kayaking, boat tours, and island hopping. The country’s interior which features thousands of lakes is a summer destination with holiday cabins, swimming, fishing and also sailing. Savonlinna is famous for its 15th-century Olavinlinna island castle while Porvoo which is located East of Helsinki has a medieval old town as well as an Iron Age fortress.

  • #16. France
  • Capital city: Paris
  • Area: 551,500 km2 (212,900 sq. mi)
  • Population: 65,420,023

Western European nation France is known for its medieval cities, alpine villages as well as Mediterranean beaches. Paris, capital of France, is famous for its fashion houses, prestigious art museums including the Louvre and also monuments such as the Eiffel Tower. Wines and sophisticated cuisine are some of the other things this country is famous for. The country has a rich history which is shown by Lascaux’s ancient cave drawings, the Roman theater in Lyon and also the vast Palace of Versailles.

  • #17. Georgia
  • Capital city: Tbilisi
  • Area: 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq. mi)
  • Population: 3,904,909

Georgia is one of the nations that located at the intersection of the duo of Asia and Europe. It is a former Soviet Republic country and is home to Caucasus Mountain villages as well as Black Sea beaches. The country is famous for Vardzia, a sprawling cave monastery which dates back to the 12th century, and also the ancient wine-growing region Kakheti. The capital of Georgia, Tbilisi, is well known for the different architecture and mazelike, cobblestone streets of its Old Town. Looming above the capital Tbilisi is Narikala Castle, a reconstructed fortress which was founded in the 4th century and used during later Turkish and Persian occupations. The Svetitskhoveli Cathedral which was constructed in the 11th century is one of many notable Georgian Orthodox churches and sits in the nearby town of Mtskheta. The iconic 14th century Gergeti Trinity Church sits at the foothills of 5,033m-high Mount Kazbek.

  • #18. Germany
  • Capital city: Berlin
  • Area: 357,386 square kilometres (137,988 sq. mi)
  • Population: 82,403,142

Germany, with Berlin as it's a capital city is a Western European country with a landscape of forests, rivers, mountain ranges and also North Sea beaches. The country has over two millennia of history. Berlin is home to art and nightlife scenes, the Brandenburg Gate as well as many sites relating to WWII. Munich is famous for its Oktoberfest and beer halls, including the 16th-century Hofbräuhaus. Frankfurt, which has numerous skyscrapers, is home to the European Central Bank. Germany is also famous for its hiking and skiing opportunities in both the Alps and the Black Forest.

  • #19. Greece
  • Capital city: Athens
  • Area: 131,940 sq. km (50,942 sq. mi)
  • Population: 11,128,874

Greece is a country with a rich history. It is located in southeastern Europe and has thousands of islands throughout the Aegean and Ionian seas. The country was quite influential in ancient times and is often called the cradle of Western civilization. Athens, the capital of Greece, retains ancient landmarks including the 5th century B.C. Acropolis citadel with the Parthenon temple. Greece has a couple of famous beaches. Major islands in the country include Crete which is home to the Palace of Knossos, famously associated with the mythical Minotaur. Thessaloniki is the second largest city in Greece and was an important commercial center during the Byzantine Empire. Olympia, located on the Peloponnese peninsula, was where the original Olympic Games was birthed.

  • #20. Hungary
  • Capital city: Budapest
  • Area: 93,030 sq. km (35,919 sq. mi)
  • Population: 9,663,482

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Hungary is a landlocked country that is situated in the Central part of Europe. The capital, Budapest, is bisected by the Danube River. The city is also littered with architectural landmarks that range from Buda’s medieval Castle Hill and grand neoclassical buildings to the 19th century Chain Bridge. There is a heavy influence of Turkish and Roman culture on Hungarian culture as evidenced by the popularity of mineral spas, including at thermal Lake Hévíz. The northern spa town of Eger features an Ottoman-era thermal bath, art nouveau architecture as well as a medieval castle with Turkish additions. In the south of Hungary, the Old Town of Pécs sits on a Roman site and has an ancient Christian necropolis. Siklós Castle features 13th-century dungeons.

  • #21. Iceland
  • Capital city: Reykjavik
  • Area: 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq. mi)
  • Population: 340,566

Iceland is a Nordic island nation that is defined by its dramatic landscape which features volcanoes, geysers, hot springs and also lava fields. Vatnajökull and Snæfellsjökull national parks protect massive glaciers. The majority of the country’s population lives in the capital, Reykjavik. The city runs on geothermal power and is home to the National and Saga museums, tracing the country’s Viking history. Reykjavik is famous for the late-night clubs and bars in its small center. Thingvellir National Park is the site of the country’s first Parliament which was established in 930 A.D. You can also watch the Northern Lights during winter in Iceland.

  • #22. Republic of Ireland
  • Capital city: Dublin
  • Area: 70,273 km2 (27,133 sq. mi)
  • Population: 4,836,293

The Republic of Ireland sits on the most of the island of Ireland, off the coast of England and Wales. The capital city, Dublin, is the birthplace of Oscar Wilde, a famous writer and home of Guinness beer. Dublin’s Trinity College Library displays the 9th century Book of Kells and other illustrated manuscripts. Ireland is dubbed the "Emerald Isle” for its lush landscape. Also, the country is littered with castles such as medieval Cahir Castle. Western Galway hosts a famous summer arts festival. Located off the southwestern coast, the island of Skellig Michael houses the remnants of a centuries-old monastery.

  • #23. Italy
  • Capital city: Rome
  • Area: 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq. mi)
  • Population: 59,234,642

Italy is a European country with a long Mediterranean coastline. The country has left a powerful mark on Western culture and cuisine. The capital of Italy, Rome, is home to the Vatican and also landmark art and ancient ruins. Many major Italian cities include Florence, which features Renaissance masterpieces such as Michelangelo’s "David" and Brunelleschi's Duomo; Venice, known as the city of canals; and Milan which is Italy’s fashion capital. Northern Italy offers you the lakeside towns of Lombardy, hiking the hillside-hugging villages of Cinque Terre and also downhill skiing in the Italian Alps. In central Italy, you will find the rolling vineyards of Tuscany and Umbria, and also Pisa’s iconic leaning tower. South of Italy, Naples is famous for its pizza; the rugged Amalfi Coast, where picturesque towns sit precariously over cliffs; and also Pompeii's 2,000-year-old remains. Located off the southern tip of the peninsula, Sicily offers ancient ruins, beaches as well as an active volcano.

  • #24. Kazakhstan
  • Capital city: Astana
  • Area: 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq. mi)
  • Population: 18,546,646

Kazakhstan is a former Soviet republic country. The territory of Khazakstan extends from the Caspian Sea in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east where it shares a border with China and Russia. Almaty is the largest metropolis in the Kazakhstan. The city has for long been a trading hub with landmarks such as the Ascension Cathedral, a tsarist-era Russian Orthodox church, and also the Central State Museum of Kazakhstan, where thousands of Kazakh artifacts are displayed. Also, Almaty is a gateway to the popular ski resort Shymbulak and also to Medeu, a high-altitude outdoor ice-skating rink. Astana, the capital, is defined by modern architecture such as the futuristic, 97m-tall Bayterek tower. Beyond Astana, there are Saryarka’s lake-filled nature reserves, which protect endangered birds as well as other wildlife. The city of Turkistan features the 14th-century Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi which is a popular Muslim pilgrimage site.

  • #25. Kosovo
  • Capital city: Pristina
  • Area: 10,908 square kilometres (4,212 sq. mi)
  • Population: 1,809,280

Kosovo is officially called the Republic of Kosovo. It is a partially recognized state and disputed territory situated in Southeastern Europe. vast plains and of Dukagjin, Kosovo were the major area of the Central Kosovo while the Albanian Alps and Šar Mountains rise in the southwest and southeast respectively. Earliest known human settlements in what is today called Kosovo were the Paleolithic Vinča and Starčevo cultures. Illyrian-Dardanian and Celtic people inhabited the area during the classical period. But in 168 BC, the area was annexed by the Romans. Later in the Middle Ages, the Byzantine, Bulgarian and Serbian Empires all conquered the area. The Battle of Kosovo in 1389 is today considered to be one of the defining moments in Serbian medieval history. Top attractions in Kosovo include Visoki Dečani Monastery that was built in the 14th century by Serbian King, Stefan Dečanski.

  • #26. Latvia
  • Capital city: Riga
  • Area: 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq. mi)
  • Population: 1,900,000

Latvia sits on the Baltic Sea between Lithuania and Estonia. The country has a landscape that is marked by wide beaches and also dense, sprawling forests. The capital city Riga is home to striking wooden and art nouveau architecture, a huge Central Market as well as a medieval Old Town with St. Peter’s Church. Riga’s many museums include the Latvian Ethnographic Open-Air Museum, which showcases local crafts, food, and music. Jūrmala is filled with mineral springs and Baltic beaches and is a popular spa resort. Turaida Castle is an imposing fortress which sits within Sigulda’s Turaida Museum Reserve, while the ruins of the 13th century Cēsis Castle dominate Gauja National Park.

  • #27. Liechtenstein
  • Capital city: Vaduz
  • Area: 160 square kilometers (62 square miles)
  • Population: 38,343

German-speaking Lichtenstein is a 25km-long principality located between Austria and Switzerland. The country is famous for its medieval castles, mountainous landscapes as well as villages linked by a network of trails. The capital city Vaduz is a cultural and financial center and is home to Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein which features galleries of modern and contemporary art. The Postmuseum exhibits Liechtenstein’s postage stamps. The 12th century Vaduz Castle overlooks the capital city and serves as a residence for the royal family. Skiing, hiking, and cycling are some of the popular pastimes in Liechtenstein. Balzers is home to Burg Gutenberg which is a well-preserved 12th-century castle which now serves as a museum. Also, there are Roman ruins in the villages of Nendeln and Schaanwald. The village of Schellenberg features ruins of 2 medieval castles.

  • #28. Lithuania
  • Capital city: Vilnius
  • Area: 65,300 km2 (25,212 sq. mi.)
  • Population: 2,860,000

Lithuania is the southernmost of Europe’s Baltic states. The former Soviet bloc nation shares a border with Poland, Latvia, and Belarus. It's capital, Vilnius is located near Belarus’ border and is known for its medieval Old Town. It also features Gothic, Renaissance, and baroque architecture, as well as an 18th-century cathedral built on a pagan temple site. Gediminas Tower on Hilltop is a symbol of the city and the nation, and it offers sweeping views of the city. The Cold War Museum located in Žemaitija National Park, the city of Kaunas’ Ninth Fort (used as a prison) as well as the capital’s Museum of Genocide Victims are all sober reminders of Nazi and Soviet occupations.

  • #29. Luxembourg
  • Capital city: Luxembourg City
  • Area: 2,586 square kilometers (999 square miles)
  • Population: 613,012

Luxembourg is a small European country that is surrounded by Belgium, France, and Germany. The country is mostly rural and its capital, Luxembourg City, is famous for its fortified medieval old town perched on sheer cliffs. Luxembourg City, which was fortified by several different European rulers, was strategically important for centuries. Gates, forts, as well as an 18th-century tunnel network – the Bock Casemates – remain till date. Away from the capital, dedicated hiking and cycling trails wind through the countryside which is home to medieval castles such as Bourscheid and Vianden. Mondorf-Les-Bains is a highly popular spa town. The southeastern Moselle valley is well known for its vineyards, water sports as we as river cruises. Memorials and museums spread across the country all document the turbulent events of WWII.

  • #30. Malta
  • Capital city: Valletta
  • Area: 316 square kilometers (122 mi²)
  • Population: 422,000

Malta is famous for its historical sites which are related to a succession of rulers including the Romans, Moors, Knights of Saint John, French and also British. The country features fortresses, megalithic temples as well as the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum which is a subterranean complex of halls and burial chambers that dates far back to circa 4000 B.C. The capital city Valletta sits on the largest island, also called Malta. Valletta is a medieval fortress city and is also the site of high baroque St John’s Co-Cathedral which contains 2 Caravaggio paintings; Mdina, a walled medieval city; as well as beaches such as Golden Bay and Mhelliah Bay which are busy and Paradise Bay which is quiet. On the island of Gozo, Dwejra Bay shows natural coastal formations, dive sites here include the Blue Hole–an underwater chimney–and also a lagoon nicknamed the Inland Sea.

  • #31. Moldova
  • Capital city: Chișinău
  • Area: 33,850 km2 (13,000 sq. mi.)
  • Population: 4,030,000

Moldova is an Eastern European country and also the former Soviet Republic. The country has varied terrain which includes forests, rocky hills, and vineyards. Moldova’s wine regions include Nirvana, which is known for reds, and Codru, which is home to some of the world’s largest cellars. The capital city Chișinău features Soviet-style architecture and the National Museum of History, which displays art and ethnographic collections which reflect social links with neighboring Romania.  Sites outside the capital include Căpriana, which is an Orthodox church complex which contains one of the country’s oldest monasteries, and Old Orhei, an archaeological dig by the Răut River which features ruins from various civilizations, including a 13th-century cave monastery that is carved into a limestone cliff.

  • #32. Monaco
  • Capital city: Monte Carlo
  • Area: 2.020 km2 (0.780 sq. mi)
  • Population: 39,051

This tiny independent city-state is located on France’s Mediterranean coastline and is famous for its upscale casinos, yacht-lined harbor as well as prestigious Grand Prix motor race, which runs through Monaco’s streets annually. Monte-Carlo, which is the major district of the country is home to an elegant belle-époque casino complex as well as ornate Salle Garnier opera house. Also, it features many luxe hotels, boutiques, nightclubs as well as restaurants.

  • #33. Montenegro
  • Capital city: Podgorica
  • Area: 13,812 km² (5,332 sq. mi)
  • Population: 629,355

This Balkan country features terrain with rugged mountains, medieval villages and also a narrow strip of beaches along its Adriatic coastline. The Bay of Kotor, which looks like a fjord is littered with coastal churches as well as fortified towns such as Kotor and Herceg Novi. Durmitor National Park shelters bears and wolves. The park also has limestone peaks, glacial lakes as well as the 1,300m-deep Tara River Canyon. Budva is a lively beach town which has luxury yachts in the harbor and a party vibe in the old town center. Nearby is Sveti Stefan, a 15th-century island town that has been turned into a high-end resort connected to the mainland by just a thin causeway.

  • #34. Netherlands
  • Capital: Amsterdam
  • Area: 41,500 square kilometres (16,000 sq. mi)
  • Population: 17,121,043

Located in the northwestern part of Europe, Netherlands is a country that is well known for its a flat landscape of canals, tulip fields, windmills as well as cycling routes. The capital is Amsterdam, a city home to the Rijksmuseum, Van Gogh Museum and also the house where Jewish diarist Anne Frank hid during WWII. In the city, canalside mansions as well as a lot of works from artists such as Rembrandt and Vermeer from the city’s 17th century “Golden Age.” can still be found. Rotterdam is a major port city and features bold modern architecture. The university town of Utrecht features lively canalside cafes as well as the 14th century Dom Tower.

  • #35. North Macedonia (formerly Macedonia)
  • Capital city: Skopje
  • Area: 25,713 km2 (9,928 sq. mi).
  • Population: 2,086,317

Northern Macedonia which was formerly known as Macedonia is a landlocked Balkan nation of mountains, lakes and also ancient towns which feature Ottoman and European architecture. The capital city Skopje is well known for its sprawling Old Bazaar quarter as well as historic buildings which have been turned into museums, including the National Gallery of Macedonia, which is situated in the 15th-century Turkish bath complex. The southern city Ohrid sits on a lake of the same name and features a medieval townscape and hilltop castle. Close to Ohrid, there are lake beaches, plus the rugged Galičica National Park and its hiking trails. To the east, Bitola features Ottoman-era mosques, a huge covered bazaar as well as a lively café scene. The Heraclea Lyncestis Roman ruins which are home to an amphitheater and elaborate Byzantine mosaics are located just outside town.

  • #36. Norway
  • Capital city: Oslo
  • Area: 385,207 square kilometres (148,729 sq. mi)
  • Population: 5,389,552

This Scandinavian country encompasses mountains, glaciers and deep coastal fjords. Oslo, which is the capital, is a city of green spaces and museums. On displayed at Oslo’s Viking Ship Museum are preserved 9th-century Viking ships. Bergen, a city with colorful wooden houses, is the starting point for cruises to the dramatic Sognefjord. Also, Norway is quite famous for fishing, hiking as well as skiing, notably at Lillehammer’s Olympic resort. The glowing-red midnight sun, as well as the Northern Lights, are visible from Arctic Tromsø and Kirkenes. Trondheim evokes Norway’s rich history and traditions with 11th-century Nidarosdomen Cathedral which was built over the grave of former king St. Olaf, the country’s patron saint.

  • #37. Poland
  • Capital city: Warsaw
  • Area: 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq. mi)
  • Population: 38,046,887

Located in eastern European on the Baltic Sea, Poland is famous for its medieval architecture and Jewish heritage. Warsaw which is the capital city has shopping and nightlife, and also the Warsaw Uprising Museum which honors the city’s WWII-era resistance to German occupation. In Kraków, the Wawel Castle which was built in the 14th century rises above the medieval Old Town. Not too far from Kraków is the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp memorial, as well as the vast Wieliczka Salt Mine, which has underground halls and tunnels. The Baltic seacoast has beach resorts, the historic port city of Gdańsk and also Gothic Malbork Castle, which is now a museum. Białowieża National Park helps to preserve one of the last parcels of primeval forest in Europe and is also home to European bison.

  • #38. Portugal
  • Capital city: Lisbon
  • Area: 35,516 square miles (91,985 square kilometers)
  • Population: 10,263,224

Portugal sits on the Iberian Peninsula in Southern Europe. The country shares a border with Spain. Its strategic location on the Atlantic Ocean has influenced many aspects of its culture. Algarve’s beaches are a major destination in the country. Much of Portugal’s architecture dates back to the 1500s–1800s when the country had a powerful maritime empire. In the mid-Atlantic, the country’s volcanic Azores islands are quite popular for trekking and also whale-watching while the island of Madeira is popular for a mild winter climate, its namesake fortified wine as well as trails along mountain aqueducts. The capital Lisbon has São Jorge Castle sitting on top of the medieval Alfama district, with views of the Tagus estuary.

  • #39. Romania
  • Capital city: Bucharest
  • Area: 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq. mi)
  • Population: 19,506,095

Romania is a country located in the southeastern part of Europe. The country is famous for the forested region of Transylvania, which is ringed by the Carpathian Mountains. Romanians preserved medieval towns include Sighişoara, and there are several fortified churches and castles, notably clifftop Bran Castle, which has long been associated with the Dracula legend. Bucharest, the capital, features the gigantic, Communist-era Palatul Parlamentului government building. Also located in the capital is the open-air Muzeul Naţional al Satului, a traditional rural “village” which is composed of preserved farmsteads. Lași features the intricately carved Mănăstirea Trei Ierarhi, a monastery which dates back to the 1600s. The Carpathian Mountains are quite popular for trekking, climbing, skiing and also bathing in natural thermal spas.

  • #40. Russia
  • Capital city: Moscow
  • Area: 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq. mi)
  • Population: 143,912,402

Russia is the world’s largest country. The landscape of Russia ranges from tundra and forests to subtropical beaches. The country is famous for Moscow’s Bolshoi and St. Petersburg’s Mariinsky ballet companies. St. Petersburg, a city that was founded by Russian leader Peter the Great, features the baroque Winter Palace which now houses part of the State Hermitage Museum’s art collection. Located in the capital city, Moscow is the site of the Kremlin, a walled citadel that houses the president, and Red Square, which is backed by the colorful onion domes of St. Basil’s Cathedral. Black Sea resort towns such as Sochi are popular for beach-going. Nearby Caucasus range which is best known for Mt. Elbrus, Europe’s highest mountain is a top spot for skiing and climbing.

  • #41. San Marino
  • Capital city: San Marino
  • Area: Area 61.2 sq.km (23.6 sq. miles)
  • Population: 33,653

This mountainous microstate is surrounded by north-central Italy. San Marino is known to be one of the world’s oldest republics. The country has retained much of its historic architecture. Located on the slopes of Monte Titano is the capital of the country, also called San Marino. The city is known for its medieval walled old town as well as narrow cobblestone streets. The Three Towers, castlelike citadels which date back to the 11th century, sit atop Titano’s nearby peaks. The second Tower, the 13th century Cesta Fortress, houses a museum of medieval weapons and is a popular hiking destination with views of the Adriatic Sea. The capital’s old town also contains many of the country’s other major landmarks, including the Palazzo Pubblico, the Basilica of San Marino, and the Cava dei Balestrieri.

  • #42. Serbia
  • Capital city: Belgrade
  • Area: 87,460 Km2 (33,768 sq. miles)
  • Population: 8,740,115

Located on southeast Europe’s Balkan Peninsula, Serbia has northern plateaus and mountains which have ski resorts to the south. The capital city Belgrade features Communist-era architecture as well as Kalemegdan Park, which is the site of Belgrade Fortress that was held in succession by the Roman, Byzantine and as well as Ottoman empire. Stari Grad which is the old city features 19th-century mansions, plus opera as well as a ballet at Narodno Pozorište which is the national theater. The city of Novi Sad hosts the annual EXIT pop-music festival, a large festival that is held on the grounds of Petrovaradinska Tvrđava, a hilltop fort featuring underground tunnels. Across the Danube River, is Fruška Gora, a national park which features hiking trails and well over a dozen Serbian Orthodox monasteries, most of which date back to the 1500s. The Kopaonik mountain range is very famous for its ski resort and national park.

  • #43. Slovakia
  • Capital city: Bratislava
  • Area: 49,000 square kilometres (19,000 sq. mi)
  • Population: 5,450,708

Slovakia is generally known as well officially known as the Slovak Republic. this country is a landlocked nation and can be found in the Central Europe. The country’s territory is mostly mountainous. The capital and largest city in Slovakia is Bratislava while the second largest city is Košice. The official language of the country is Slovak. The Slavs are beloved to have arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th and 6th centuries.

  • #44. Slovenia
  • Capital city: Ljubljana
  • Area: 20,273 square kilometers (7,827 sq. mi)
  • Population: 2,080,000

Situated in Central European country, Slovenia is famous for its mountains, ski resorts, and lakes. On Lake Bled, a glacial lake that is fed by hot springs, the town of Bled houses a church-topped islet as well as a Cliffside medieval castle. In Ljubljana, the capital city of Lithuania, baroque facades are present but are mixed with 20th-century architecture of native Jože Plečnik. His iconic Tromostovje which means Triple Bridge spans the length of the very tightly curving Ljubljanica River. Ljubljanica also is noted for its riverside cafes as well as green spaces, including Tivoli Park. Nearby Triglav National Park in the Julian Alps allows for skiing and hiking, plus rafting along the Soča River, which is renowned for aquamarine water. In central Slovenia, an electric train passes through Postojnska, an extensive network of limestone caverns.

  • #45. Spain
  • Capital city: Madrid
  • Area: 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq. mi)
  • Population: 46,430,761

Spain is a country in Europe’s the Iberian Peninsula. It includes 17 autonomous regions with diverse geography as well as cultures. The capital city Madrid houses the Royal Palace as well as Prado museum which houses works by European masters. Segovia features a medieval castle (the Alcázar) as well as an intact Roman aqueduct. Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia, is defined by Antoni Gaudí’s whimsical modernist landmarks such as the Sagrada Família church. In Northern Spain, Basque Country is famous for rich culinary culture and also Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. Santiago de Compostela is known as a holy pilgrimage city.

  • #46. Sweden
  • Capital city: Stockholm
  • Area: 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq. mi)
  • Population: 10,151,866

This Scandinavian nation is well known for its thousands of coastal islands and inland lakes, as well as vast boreal forests and glaciated mountains. The country’s major cities, eastern capital Stockholm and southwestern Gothenburg and also Malmö, are all coastal. Fourteen islands were the major pillar of Stockholm city. The city has over 50 bridges, the medieval old town, Gamla Stan, royal palaces as well as museums such as open-air Skansen. Malmö, which is linked to Copenhagen by the Oresund bridge, has a network of canals and parks. Gothenburg is a port city which serves as a gateway for exploring the islands and seal colonies of the Väderöarna Archipelago. Northern Lapland is famous for its indigenous Sami culture, the Northern Lights as well as Jukkasjärvi’s ice hotel. Viking by is a reconstructed 10th century Viking village situated on the island of Gotland.

  • #47. Switzerland
  • Capital city: Bern
  • Area: 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq. mi)
  • Population: 8,592,943

Situated in Central Europe, Switzerland is known as a mountainous country. The country is home to numerous lakes, villages as well as the high peaks of the Alps. Swiss cities feature old quarters that have landmarks. The capital city, Bern has the Zytglogge clock tower while Lucerne has a wooden chapel bridge. The country is also famous for its ski resorts and hiking trails. Banking and finance are the key industries in Switzerland. Swiss watches and chocolate are well acknowledged globally. Zurich is a global finance center which houses an old town and the historical Swiss National Museum. Nearby Lucerne, is a quaint lake town where a cogwheel train climbs Mount Pilatus and steamships ferry passengers for views of the mountains.

  • #48. Turkey
  • Capital city: Ankara
  • Area: 780,000 square kilometres (300,000 sq. mi)
  • Population: 82,702,029

Turkey is a nation located in eastern Europe and western Asia. The country has cultural connections to empires such as ancient Greek, Persian, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman. Cosmopolitan Istanbul which is located on the Bosphorus Strait is home to the iconic Hagia Sophia, which has a soaring dome as well as Christian mosaics, the massive 17th century Blue Mosque and also the circa-1460 Topkapı Palace, which served as the home of sultans. Ankara is the modern capital city of Turkey. Major resorts in the country include Antalya, which is a gateway to the southern Mediterranean area known as both the Turkish Riviera and the Turquoise Coast, and the Bodrum and Çesme peninsulas, both on the Aegean. Archaeological sites of note in the country include the remnants of Troy and Pergamon, the Roman ruins at Hierapolis as well as the great ancient city of Ephesus.

  • #49. Ukraine
  • Capital city: Kiev
  • Area: 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq. mi)
  • Population: 43,846,418

Ukraine is a large country situated in the Eastern part of Europe. The country is known for its Orthodox churches, Black Sea coastline as well as forested mountains. Its capital city is Kiev. Kiev has the gold-domed St. Sophia’s Cathedral which has 11th-century mosaics and frescoes. The Kiev Pechersk Lavra monastery complex which is a Christian pilgrimage site. The complex houses Scythian tomb relics and catacombs which contain mummified Orthodox monks. It overlooks the Dnieper River. The city of Odessa located on the Black Sea is famous for its grand Primorsky Boulevard, its 19th-century museums, and theaters, as well as the underground labyrinth of the Odessa Catacombs. The famous Potemkin Steps lead down to the waterfront, which is lined by beaches outside the city center. In western Ukraine, Lviv is very famous for its coffeehouses and Rynok Square, which is bordered by Renaissance, baroque and neoclassical buildings.

  • #50. United Kingdom (UK)
  • Capital city: London
  • Area: 243,610 square kilometres (94,060 sq. mi)
  • Population: 66,867,335

The United Kingdom is a union made up of England, Scotland, Wales and also Northern Ireland. It is an island nation in northwestern Europe. England which is the birthplace of Shakespeare and The Beatles is home to the capital, London. Also, England is the site of Neolithic Stonehenge, Bath’s Roman spa as well as centuries-old universities at Oxford and Cambridge. Scotland is a land famous for its whiskey distillers and golf courses that are typified by the 15th century Old Course at St Andrew's. Scotland is also known for its Highland mountains, offshore islands such as Skye and Lewis, and the legendary monster of Loch Ness. Wales, on the other hand, has mountainous Snowdonia National Park, miles of beaches as well as castles at Cardiff, Caernarfon, Caerphilly, and Conwy. Northern Ireland on its part is famous for Celtic folk music, the lush Glens of Antrim as well as a craggy coastline featuring the Giant’s Causeway, which is an unusual natural formation of hexagonal rock columns.

  • #51. Vatican City
  • Area: 44 hectares or 110 acres
  • Population: 1000

Vatican City is a city-state that is surrounded by Rome, Italy. It is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church and home to the Pope as well as a trove of iconic art and architecture. Its Vatican Museums house ancient Roman sculptures like the famous “Laocoön and His Sons” as well as Renaissance frescoes in the Raphael Rooms and the Sistine Chapel which is famous for Mic

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